The total petroleum- and gas-bearing area within the continental shelf is estimated to be 13 million sq km, or about half of the shelf s area. The pelagic zone contains and and myriad zooplankton which drift with the currents. . Unconfirmed oceans are speculated beneath the surface of many and natural satellites; notably, the ocean of is estimated to have over twice the water volume of Earth. And we really see this use growing over the next few years as that wind energy industry grows. This can be thought of as a cube of water with an edge length of 1,101 kilometers 684 mi.
Despite variations in the levels of salinity in different seas, the relative composition of the dissolved salts is stable throughout the world's oceans. Other birds that have adapted to oceans as their living space are , and. Some of these are kept permanently on patrol. Although Earth is the only known with large stable bodies of liquid water on its surface and the only one in the , other celestial bodies are thought to have large oceans. Tidal and Marine Current Energy The way sea water moves in the form of ocean currents and the tide coming in and going out is another source of energy. Archived from on 6 July 2011. All of these habitats are able to sequester large quantities of carbon and support a range of larger and smaller animal life.
Average values of basic components of the heat balance according to M. Canada, the United States, and Great Britain are also developing plans to construct such plants. Vast abyssal plains cover significant portions of the deep ocean basin. A wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, , algae, plants, fungi and animals, live in the sea, which offers a wide range of and , ranging vertically from the sunlit surface waters and the shoreline to the enormous depths and pressures of the cold, dark , and in latitude from the cold waters under the ice to the colourful diversity of in tropical regions. Symbolically, the sea appears as monsters such as in and represents the in. In the decisive 480 B.
. The ocean is an increasingly important source of biomedical organisms with enormous potential for fighting disease. We need to tackle the problem of marine debris head on. The ocean contains rich mineral resources, which may be subdivided into the chemical elements dissolved in seawater, the minerals found under the sea floor, both on the continental shelves and elsewhere, and the minerals occurring on the surface of the floor. The control of the world's fisheries is a controversial subject, as they cannot produce enough to satisfy the demand, especially when there aren't enough fish left to breed in healthy ecosystems.
Gold and platinum have been found in many places, for example, along the coast of Alaska and California in the United States, as well as columbite-tantalite, magnetite, titanomagnetite, chromites, and diamonds. The largest of these is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch which stretches across the Pacific Ocean between Japan and North America, with the greatest concentration of garbage lying in the stretch of ocean between California and Hawaii where scientists estimate concentrations of plastic to be around 480,000 pieces per square kilometre. Evaporation cools the water and warms the air, such as in the tropics. The quasi permanent current is accelerated by the breaking of waves, and in a lesser governing effect, by the friction of the wind on the surface. Click the link for more information. Typical topographic features of the mid-ocean ridges are rift valleys framing rift ridges, transverse faults, and large volcanic massifs, for example, the Azores. The oceans hold about 320 million cubic miles 1.
A is a point of land jutting out into the sea and a larger is known as a. They participate in the cycle of matter, induce oxidation-reduction processes, and assimilate organic matter from the water and bottom sediments, thus making it suitable for use by animals. A wind is named according to the point of the compass from which it blows, e. Plastic debris in the ocean varies greatly in size, from tiny microplastics that are invisible to the naked eye to large pieces of plastic debris, such as discarded fishing gear, which can extend for meters or in some cases even kilometers. In modern literature, sea-inspired novels have been written by — drawn from , , and. Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 is specifically devoted to the protection of the oceans and the protection and rational use and development of their living resources. Oceans remove carbon from the air, regulate the Earth's climate, provide food, provide jobs and provide oxygen.
The oceans' surface layer holds large amounts of that is exchanged rapidly with the atmosphere. Rogue waves, however, have been documented at heights above 25 meters 82 ft. Various gases both from the atmosphere and formed in the water layer itself are dissolved in ocean water. The general pattern of these surface currents is a nearly closed system of currents, called gyres, which are approximately centered on the horse latitudes, two belts of latitude where winds are light and the weather is hot and dry. Many continental slopes end in gently sloping, smooth-surfaced features called continental rises. There are many multilateral and bilateral agreements regulating the taking of fish and other marine products on the high seas. Other fish, octopuses, squid, eels, dolphins, and whales ply the open waters while crabs, lobsters, starfish, oysters, and snails crawl and scoot along the ocean bottom.
The Gods of the Greeks. In addition to sea ice, enormous masses of continental ice icebergs are found in the ocean. This is possible because seawater has a very high density and specific heat and can store vast quantities of energy in the form of heat. The minerals precipitate from seawater and grow very slowly. Ropes can be hung in water to grow algae, oysters and mussels.
In tropical regions, are likely to be severely affected as it becomes more difficult to build their calcium carbonate skeletons, in turn adversely impacting other dwellers. These branches merge with the surface currents coming from the high latitudes into the temperate latitudes along the eastern coasts of continents and complete the cyclonic circulations. For the same reason, when air blows over the water, its temperature tends to come to the temperature of the water rather than vice versa. The third sea is called , and in it lies the , in which are precious stones and rubies. These contaminants are stored in the body fat and organs of animals and are passed on to predators that feed on them, becoming more concentrated in the tissues of organisms higher up the food chain. Inanna, Lady of Largest Heart: Poems of the Sumerian High. Large and totally landlocked saltwater bodies such as the Caspian Sea are actually salt lakes.
Other countries producing the most fish were Peru, Japan, the United States, Chile, Indonesia, Russia, India, Thailand, Norway and Iceland- with Peru being the most and Iceland being the least. In fact, the oceans teem with life and provide many varying microhabitats. Solving the extremely difficult problem of concentrating the diffused energy of waves would give man a major new source of energy. A characteristic of seawater is that it is salty. It will be solutions-focused with engagement from all. The largest deposits are worked on the east coast of Australia, where more than 1 million tons of titanium minerals are extracted annually; 1,245,000 tons were mined in 1970, including 877,000 tons of ilmenite.