From the preceding eight criteria, Gardner 1983; 1999a proposed and defined seven intelligences. Regarding the claim that Multiple Intelligences theory cannot accommodate g, Gardner argues that g has a scientific place in intelligence theory but that he is interested in understanding intellectual processes that are not explained by g. Please feel free to contact us with issues, questions, and contributions that you feel would help others using this site as a resource. Second, psychometric theories cannot precisely characterize all that goes on in the mind. An individual's general intelligence determines how well a person will do on cognitive assessments, while the individual's s factor influences the overall assessment, concluding that a person who scores low on one test will score low on all the other's and an individual who scores high will score high on all other cognitive tests. Lunneborg, who in 1973 showed one way in which psychometrics and cognitive modeling could be combined. Multifactor Theory: The multifactor theory holds that the performance on a certain test depends on one or more common factors, each weighted according to its significance for success in the task.
Teachers, social workers, actors, and politicians all exhibit interpersonal intelligence. American Journal of Psychology 15. The following definition is a composite from various authors. General factor or ability works in conjunction with special ability. Psychologists are taught to assess patterns of performance on intelligence tests and to obtain clinical observations of the child during the testing session. Although such processes may be involved in intelligence, Sternberg claimed that they were rather than central.
His theory of multiple intelligences is quite popular and is widely utilized. Such may occur in a variety of settings: a student in school learns the material he needs to know in order to do well in a course; a physician treating a patient with unfamiliar symptoms learns about the underlying disease; or an artist reworks a painting to convey a more impression. Sailors, pilots, sculptors, painters, and architects all exhibit spatial intelligence. It might seem self-evident that the factor at the top would be the general factor, but it is not, since there is no guarantee that there is any general factor at all. Emotional intelligence also reflects abilities to join intelligence, empathy and emotions to enhance thought and understanding of interpersonal dynamics. He agrees with Gardner that there are indeed domains of intelligence that are relevantly autonomous of each other.
The theory has been criticized by mainstream psychology for its lack of , and its dependence on subjective judgement. So the criticism of the discrepancy model is correct, says Alan Kaufman, but it misses the real issue: whether or not intelligence tests, when properly administered and interpreted, can be useful. Generally, linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities are called intelligences, but artistic, musical, athletic, etc. The tests A and B have a relatively higher correlation, that is, they have much in common in G, whereas tests A and C have little correlation, because they have small loadings with G. Important factors that help build the intelligence level through ones environment are from schooling and positive surroundings. They are typically good at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates. More-intelligent persons, then, find a in which they can operate most efficiently.
They are drawn to arithmetic problems, strategy games and experiments. Also, emotional intelligent employees have better resources to cope with stressing situations and demanding tasks, which enable them to outperform in those situations. And being an effective leader is giving good clear instructions and expectations so that you can get the behaviors you seek. The first myth is that if there are seven intelligences we must be able to measure them with seven specific tests. However, you can see that Sternberg does not focus on specific components of intelligence that are aligned with various academic disciplines.
The second aspect consists of the application of these processes and representations to the external world. At this point in history, the study of intelligence has moved well beyond the realm of psychometrics. International Journal of Business and Management. Sternberg provides examples of people who are quite talented in one of these areas but not so talented in the other two. Other cognitive psychologists have studied human intelligence by constructing models of human cognition.
Project-based Learning Using Information Technology. Good examples of this kind of intelligence were the Native Americans before Europeans settled in. For example, over 750 research studies based on the work of Reuven Feuerstein support his theory of Structural Cognitive Modifiability. Psychologists have attempted to analyze these components, which has resulted in the development of different theories. During my study I have also, learned that there is eight different types of intelligence. He concluded that intelligence is a general cognitive ability that can be measured and numerically expressed. Athletes, dancers, surgeons and craftspeople are likely to have highly developed capacity in this area.
If a person has high analytical intelligence, they will typically perform very well in academic situations. Overall, the right hemisphere tends to be more and in its functioning than the left. Hobbs Professor in Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Archived from on January 24, 2014. The second factor is specifically related to each particular test.