In general, the colonists obeyed the Trade and Navigation Acts when they benefitted them and they ignored them when they ran contrary to colonial interests. Yet mother England wasn't done with the new rules. In the seventeenth century colonies were regarded as plantations existing solely for the benefit of the mother country. The English seizure of New Netherland was partly designed to complement the Navigation Act by crushing the Dutch freight trade with the New World. The bloody English Civil War has ended and English citizens are breathing a sigh of relief. The British Parliament enacted such mechanisms as protectionist trade barriers, governmental regulations, and subsidies to domestic industries for the purpose of augmenting British finances at the expense of colonial territories and other European imperial powers.
The goods would be unloaded, inspected all duties paid and reloaded on English vessels. It could not limit the deterioration of England's overseas trading position, except in the cases where England herself was the principal consumer, like the wine trade and the trade in Puglian olive oil. With the ratification of the Constitution, the United States government quickly assumed the authority to regulate trade just as the British government had with the Trade and Navigation Acts. The Act is often mentioned as a major cause of the , though it was only part of a larger British policy to engage in war after the negotiations had failed. Second, the French and Indian War left Great Britain with a huge debt. The trade had to be carried in English bottoms i.
The governor - or his customs agent - collected this bond and duty on behalf of England. The immediate impact of these acts on New England merchants and the New England economy was not great. The act was set to expire in 1763, and in 1764 was renewed as the , which caused unrest with the colonists. The Navigation Act of 1673, also known as the Plantation Duty Act, required colonial ship captains to guarantee that they would deliver enumerated goods to England or suffer financial penalties. The maintenance of a certain level of merchant shipping and of trade generally also facilitated a rapid increase in the size and quality of the , which eventually after the Anglo-Dutch Alliance of 1689 limited the Dutch navy to three-fifths of the size of the English one led to Britain becoming a global superpower until the mid-20th century. The main objective of the act provided that goods imported into England and its colonies must be brought in by English ships, or in ships belonging to the exporting country.
It excluded the Dutch from essentially all trade with England, as the Dutch economy was competitive with, not complementary to the English, and the two countries therefore exchanged few commodities. By establishing colonies loyal to the Crown, Great Britain would be expanding a dependable market for the finished products coming out of British industries. Repealing the Navigation Acts along with the eventually served this purpose towards the end of the century , but also led to the end of the formal empire in favour of an informal empire, in which private enterprises under the British banner extended trading relations and opened new markets. The 1660 and 1663 Navigation Acts increased the cost, and shipping time, for the colonies. Thus, the original intent of the Trade and Navigation Acts to bolster the economic development of nations at the expense of others has grown to include trade restrictions designed to compel reluctant countries to alter their policies or face economic consequences. The only people who had the right to trade with the other colonies had to be British citizens.
The sales of hats made from beaver skins were an extremely important source of income to the British nation. The rising tensions between the two superpowers led to the First Anglo-Dutch War, after which the Dutch were forced to accept the Act. These laws allowed Parliament to rigidly define all matters of maritime shipping and trade. This Act entitled colonial shipping and seamen to enjoy the full benefits of the exclusive provisions. Once again, London merchants were the key entrepreneurs in this trade, using their influence to obtain government war contracts. However, it had the advantage to English shippers of severely limiting the ability of Dutch ships to participate in the carrying trade to England.
The Act led to the First Anglo-Dutch War. This signaled a significant change in English policy towards the colonies. The clauses of the act of 1651 were preserved and developed further in the acts of 1660, 1663, 1672, and 1696. Navigation Acts - The 1663 Navigation Act aka the Staple Act The Navigation Act of 1663 was also called the Act for the Encouragement of Trade or the Staple Act. Harper, The English Navigation Laws 1939, repr. The Navigation Acts were passed under the economic theory of under which wealth was to be increased by restricting trade to colonies rather than with. Beaver hats served as a status symbol for position and wealth in the 1600 and 1700's.
The Act banned foreign ships from transporting goods from outside Europe to England or its colonies and banned third-party countries' ships from transporting goods from a country elsewhere in Europe to England. Walton concludes that the political friction caused by the Acts was more serious than the negative economic impact, especially since the merchants most affected were politically most active. The Navigation Acts were an economic and political blunder in the long run but for a time they provided England with the wealth and power it used to create a great empire. There were several factors that led to Charles's decision. The Act banned foreign ships from transporting goods from outside Europe to England or its colonies, and banned third-party countries' ships from transporting goods from a country elsewhere in Europe to England. This move was directly aimed at reducing Dutch influence in shipping.
However, after the French defeat in 1763, these Acts were enforced, and additional taxes were imposed on essential goods like sugar and paper. In England, the goods would be unloaded, inspected, paid duties, and reloaded onto the ships. The 1651 Navigation Act was declared void. Answer 1 The Navigation acts were passed by the British parliament. Effects on American colonies The Navigation Acts, while enriching Britain, caused resentment in the colonies and contributed to the. The first Navigation Act restricted the ships used in trade between Great Britain and her colonies to only British or colonial ships.
King Charles had other plans, he desperately needed money and so did England. Everything traded from the thirteen colonies had to be transported in English ships, the captain had to be English, and three- fourths of the crew had to be English. The precedent was the Act the Greenland Company had obtained from Parliament in 1645 prohibiting the import of whale products into England, except in ships owned by that company. Effects on Britain The Acts caused Britain's shipping industry to develop in isolation. They had as their purpose the expansion of the English carrying trade, the provision from the colonies of materials England could not produce, and the establishment of colonial markets for English manufactures. At the start of the American Revolution most of colonial traders were involved in smuggling to avoid restrictions placed on trade by the Navigation Acts. A specific prohibition against the transport of salted fish was aimed at Dutch merchants.