Abduction of Filipino seamen is act of piracy not terrorism. As such, policy makers and security strategists should not consider global warming a distant or abstract problem. Attempts to regulate shipping have led to the development of the flags of convenience problem. As a result, counterterrorism policies and programs will take on the character of these organizations. S as an open target. Homeland security is a shared responsibility with Congress, state and local governments, the private sector, nonprofit organizations, and the American people. This book provides useful insights into the differences between ethno-religious, nationalist, left-wing, and right-wing groups, with numerous examples of how these groups operate.
Armstrong 2004 similarly lists piracy as growing at twenty present annually. The Sunday Herald Scotland , March 21, 2004, p. This problem is compounded with the frequency of terrorist strikes in the region. Copyright © 2012 by the author s. While national security is typically considered the purview of the military referring to the aggregate of foreign and domestic security issues facing America, homeland security might best be considered a civilian function. Rhodesia and South Africa currently find themselves at this stage of guerrilla action, which if it escalates can lead to guerrilla war and eventually to civil war. Consequently, as food becomes increasingly expensive, mass migrations of populations seeking better opportunities can be expected.
Such a centralized system is also more vulnerable to disruptions in the supply chain Nankivell 2004, 31. In the realm of international relations, globalization has had a significant impact on actors in the world system. The third lens views terrorism as an organization design problem. . This is certainly one of the worst acts of war in the history of the world.
Target hardening includes the installation of locks, bars for windows, intruder alarms, fences, and other devices that make crime more difficult to carry out. Since that time, however, there has been a concerted effort to further develop theoretical models and event-level data sets that can be used to test the implications of these theoretical models. The Purpose of Terrorism Terrorist acts ultimately aim to undermine governments and disrupt societies. Just in the last two centuries, for example, terrorism has been used by Russian nihilists, nationalists in Israel, Nazi forces, environmentalists worldwide, left-wing guerrillas in Europe, discontented radicals in the United States, Latin American death squads, and Islamic fundamentalists. In particular, the focus here is on studies that draw upon the rational choice perspective.
It then becomes what is called a phantom ship, changing its name and flag regularly Liss 2003. How do terrorist groups in the Middle East recruit and radicalize people from all over the world? The more difficult tasks would be to ensure data entered in was valid and protect the system against hackers or inside personnel who would adjust the data for a fee. The first lens, criminal justice, views terrorism the proxy for homeland security as a criminal justice problem. Targeting energy infrastructure is increasingly recognised as terrorist intention. One of the best introductory texts, , provides a number of excellent chapters from differing perspectives on the historical background of anti-state terrorism, in addition to highly detailed coverage on the nature of the contemporary threat. On that day, nineteen men affiliated with al Qaeda, an Islamic terrorist organization, hijacked a total of four passenger jets.
It was flown deliberately into the building… There was nothing wrong with the airplane. The Strait of Hormuz, connecting the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, is only two kilometres at its most narrow point, yet accounts for over fifteen million barrels of oil transport daily Loft and Koran 2004. This article is designed to parallel this development. The characteristics of each lens are based on those items most frequently represented in the literature. For starters, neorealists only consider states in their analysis, never non-state actors. The overall effect of Pearl Harbor was the use of atomic bombs.
The next step in this evolution of strategic concepts is terrorism. In such situations, the Chinese military analyst Sun Tzu advised some 2500 years ago that battle with superior forces must be avoided Giles n. However, while anarchists in the first wave assassinated officials withthe aim of provoking disproportionate response, the new left terrorists rather punished their targets for various reasons. A perfect illustration of a situation, in which, politicians see greater advantage in violent conflicts than in nonviolent conflicts resolution is the conflict of Palestine. These raids often last less than thirty minutes, and rarely have any violence, except in the rare instance when a pirate is confronted by one of the crews Liss 2003. If we take the term deterrence from criminology, we would assume that we are going to deter terrorism by passing new legislation raising the penalties for specific criminal acts that may be defined as terrorism. Who are the Americans to say? The ship is typically repainted and its name changed.
These issues bring about the question of how have counter terrorism methods affected international relations. If you think about some of the typical aspects, you will get a clear idea of the hard-hitting reality of terrorism. Political insurgents such as Doubt increase the complexity of the Nigerian problem, moving it from economically based piracy to also include political and ideological agendas. The problem was compounded by the gross underpayment of maritime security in high piracy and typically economically depressed areas throughout the 1990s, who become more susceptible to bribes and in some cases even took part in piracy attacks Loft and Koran 2004. In conclusion terrorism is not a new phenomenon, its history dates back to several millennia and includes all kind of groups, states and motivations.
According to Robison 2006 the new left wave of terrorism produced some700 hijackings, there were 409 international kidnapping incidents involving 951 hostages from 1968 to 1982, assassinated high-ranking officials included the prime ministers of Spain and Jordan, the former prime minister of ItalyAldo Moro and others. There existed a solid track record of empirical research in the years prior to 2001. Excluding the nineteen hijackers, a confirmed 2,973 people died and thousands were injured as a result of these attacks. Third, terrorism is distinct from ordinary domestic crime in a number of ways. See Table 3 for a summary of this lens.
Snyder argues that religion can alter the basic patterns of international relations: who the actors are, what they want, what capacities they have to attract support, and what rules they follow. One of the main characteristics of the first wave was the political assassinations. Example: Many scholars and political analysts have argued that President George W. Fourth, counter terrorism strategies to prevent and deter terrorism can be found in part in crime prevention and deterrence theories. But an increasing number of Palestinians argue after 35 years in the squalor of refugee camps that world opinion has no impact on the policies of Israel. In addition, as pirates become more sophisticated, they may be through their very success revealing to the terrorists where opportunities for successful destruction exist Anon 2005.