By the l820s evangelicalism had become one of the most dynamic and important cultural forces in American life. Like Whitefield's, Tennent's preaching produced large crowds, many conversions and much controversy. Image result for Who was Albert F. Image result for Who was Albert F. However, the number of populist evangelical churches grew dramatically. Under Frelinghuysen's influence, Tennent came to believe that a definite conversion experience followed by assurance of salvation was the key mark of a Christian. But in the colonies before the , there were clearly social changes at work, including a rising commercial and capitalist economy, as well as increased diversity and individualism.
God was also supposedly unconcerned with a person's church attendance; rather, God would judge the person on how he or she had lived his or her life on Earth. Along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she spoke at Seneca Falls and established the National Woman Suffrage Association and fought for women's equality. Soon after, he arrived in Boston and resumed his fanatical preaching only to once again be declared insane and expelled. So the second great awakening tended to kill a whole lot of people during the American Civil War. Various clergymen preached day and night. The early years of revival produced many young leaders, but there was no dominant personality that led the revivals. The biggest difference between the first Great Awakening and the Second Great Awakening was the way in which people focused on religion.
For information on Calvinism and predestination see under Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries,. At his trial, he was found mentally ill and deported to Long Island. The Awakening aroused a wave of feeling within the Congregational churches of New England. Whitefield was known to criticize slaveholders who treated their slaves cruelly and those who did not educate them, but he had no intention to abolish slavery. Traveling evangelists copied that style of preaching and many people joined churches. Nineteenth-century evangelicals like Finney, or Lyman Beecher, or Francis Asbury, were no less unrelenting in their emphasis on the terrible sinfulness of humans.
The Second Great Awakening benefited from the as upstart religious groups competing with older denominations on a more level playing field. While emotionalism had long been the practice of revivalists, Finney was the first major religious figure to give the technique a calculated turn. There was dancing, running and singing - all of which Stone said were manifestations of God's presence. Very soon more than half of the students attending professed to have been converted and become Christians. On the American frontier, camp meetings came to characterize revivals. Because they threatened Congregationalist uniformity, the Separatists were persecuted and in Connecticut they were denied the same legal toleration enjoyed by Baptists, Quakers and Anglicans.
They did so in large measure by loosening several of the major theological doctrines of Calvinism, principally that of predestination. The church had to change. Critics disparaged the emotionalism of the converts, many of whom went into laughing, barking, dancing, and jerking spells. From Philadelphia, Whitefield traveled to New York and then to the South. At these meetings, the most famous or notorious of which took place at Cane Ridge, Kentucky in 1801, hundreds and sometimes thousands of people would gather from miles around in a wilderness encampment for four days to a week.
Still, many leaders of the revivals proclaimed that slaveholders should educate their slaves so that they could become literate and be able to read and study the Bible. It is not accurate to say that it began with, or spread from, one location, or that it was initiated by one individual. Thousands would meet in Camp Meetings, and many times the event turned quite chaotic with impromptu singing or shouting, individuals speaking in tongues, and dancing in the aisles. Revival began almost imperceptibly among a handful of students who assembled unobtrusively to pray at various colleges. In northern New England, social activism took precedence; in western New York, the movement encouraged the growth of new denominations. But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God. At a time when Enlightenment rationalism and theology was popular among some Congregational clergy, Edwards held to traditional Calvinist doctrine.
The influence of the Pett family in integrating the peoples of the world is apparent. Which eventually resulted in the sectional divisions between the three major denominations that developed: Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian. The revivals of the west were much more emotional than those in the east. He lobbied to have slavery reinstated in Georgia and proceeded to become a slave holder himself. In a response to the perceived lapse in religious devotion following the Age of Enlightenment, a number of preachers sparked the First Great Awakening in the American. During the first half of the 1800's, the population of the United States grew from five to thirty million, and the boundary of the nation moved ever westward. It was in the transformation of Calvinist theology that the Second Great Awakening had the most profound impact on individuals and on American religious culture.
University of North Carolina Press. This occurred for several reasons. The first stirrings of the Awakening occurred in the South and sparsely populated old Southwest, with its predominantly rural economy and poorly developed infrastructure and institutions, where religious organization served the critical function of providing social stability for the populace. Second Great Awakening for kids: Background and History of the First Great Awakening The began in 1725 and lasted up to 1750 during the Colonial period of American history. In the United States, and other church leaders saw the results experienced in England, and they issued a similar call to prayer in 1794, and it was heartily embraced throughout the nation.