The model was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. Information is said to pass through each stage in a fixed sequence. They were then asked to recall how many of the letters they could remember. A similar case was H. After the short term memory things are either forgotten or memorised through the rehearsal loop which will then pass through to the long term memory.
It is responsible for monitoring and coordinating the operation of the slave systems i. This emphasises that consequentiality is more important than anxiety in the accuracy of recall. Similarly the multistore model ignores the effect of meaning, for example we remember things which are more important to us rather than things which may be less important to us that we rehearse. The models main emphasis was on structure and tends to neglect the process elements of memory e. It also provides support for anterograde amnesia.
It comprises four techniques: Context reinstatement - trying to mentally recreate an image of the situation, including details of the environment, such as the weather conditions and the individual's feelings at the time of the incident. Strength: There is evidence from dual task studies to support the model. The multi-store model has accumulated much research, but it is argued by many that the model is too simplistic to explain the whole memory system. The amount of syllables used in the words would also be important. This is because information enters the memory through the five senses. Interestingly however he is able to remember procedural memories. He investigated the recall of Spanish students who had learned the language up to 50 years earlier.
The central executive is the most important component of the model, although little is known about how it functions. Sperling 1960 did a sensory store experiment, which involved showing the participants three rows of letters 12 on the chart for a split second which they then had to recall. However, if information is sufficiently well rehearsed, it is able to pass into the long term memory. However, as a result of this research, it became apparent that there were a number of problems with their ideas concerning the characteristics of short-term memory. They got students to recall combinations of three letters trigrams after longer and longer intervals. His results found that the words in the beginning and the end of the list were more often recalled but the ones in the middle were forgotten. The visuo-spatial sketchpad is a limited capacity, temporary storage system for holding visual and spatial information.
Consent must be given from the child's parent and the child should still be given the right to withdraw at any point. For instance, the model ignores factors such as motivation, effect and strategy e. We now know is this not the case. This makes it lack ecological validity, as it cannot be generalised to everyone. Rather than hitting a cyclist who is wobbling all over the road, it is preferable to stop talking and concentrate on driving. They found that the longer the distraction the less likely they were to recall correctly. Although it did lack validity as it was artificial and is not how we use everyday memory.
. The findings from case studies are useful as they have a high level of external validity and so can be applied to real-life situations. According to the model, if attention is paid to an external stimulus, an internal thought, or both, then it is stored in the short-term memory. They have found that it is easier to do two tasks at the same time if the participants use different processing systems verbal and visual than if they use the same slave system. They explained that this was probably because the cognitive interview procedure elicits more information overall than other procedures.
Later that day the police questioned Jenny, using a cognitive interview. It remains in the sensory memory for duration of 2 seconds before it decays and is replaced with new information. He found that recall fell sharply after the 3 years then after the that a significant amount continued to be available. Glanzer and Cunitz conducted an experiment and found evidence for the primacy and recency effect, supporting the idea of the short term memory and long term memory. This means that at first impression it seems to offer a plausible explanation as to how information passes through memory and is either stored or forgotten.
This experiment had no ethical issues, was it a lab experiment so it had high levels of control and it was also reliable and based on evidence. Information received will either decay or be passed forward to the short term store. In his long term memory, his autobiographical memory is partly intact yet his procedural memory is intact fully. Where the information is rehearsed it can remain there for as long as it is being rehearsed, but it will stop any new information entering the store. In real life, you use your memory to recall information that is important to you and there are usually consequences if you forget. External stimuli from the environment first enter sensory memory, where they can be registered for very brief periods of time before decaying.