From all these considerations it would seem that Tillemont's 1 conclusion is well rounded that the Synod certainly discussed the anathemas of Cyril in detail, but that here, as in many other places, there are parts of the Acts lacking. It is not permitted to produce or write or compose any other creed except the one which was defined by the holy fathers who were gathered together in the holy Spirit at Nicaea. If the number of those who are distressed is very large, then surely we should use every skill and care to remove scandals and to expound the healthy word of faith to those who seek the truth. And it was established, that although the sentence of the Roman Pontiff on matters of Faith, and on persons judged for violation of the Faith, had been passed and promulged, all was suspended, while the authority of the universal Council was awaited. Pada masa yang sama, perdebatan teologis lainnya yang dihadapi oleh Gereja adalah dengan ajaran heretic Macedonianisme, yang tidak percaya bahwa Roh Kudus juga adalah Allah sejati. Unfortunately for Nestorius, the question had already been settled by Pope Celestine and only needed to be confirmed by the assembly to be enforced. It will be noticed that the conciliabulum was absolutely silent with respect to Nestorius and his doctrine and contented itself with attacking St.
The relation of kwros to kwrion is the same as that of arguros , krusos to argurion , krusion , the 229 former being the metals themselves, the latter the metals worked up into bullion or coins or plate or trinkets or images, e. If anyone, therefore, says that it was not the very Word from God who became our high priest and apostle, when he became flesh and a man like us, but as it were another who was separate from him, in particular a man from a woman, or if anyone says that he offered the sacrifice also for himself and not rather for us alone for he who knew no sin needed no offering , let him be anathema. For as man he was anointed with us, although it is he himself who gives the Spirit to those who are worthy and not in measure, according to the saying of the blessed Evangelist John. Pelagius's doctrines may be briefly stated thus. But I return to the point which especially I had in mind. When this had been done, the three severally pronounced a confirmation in the name.
He, however, explained that what was not against the Creed was not beside it. The letter of Nestorius is disapproved in the same manner, by the same rule, by which that of Cyril was approved. This was the sentiment of the holy Fathers; therefore they ventured to call the holy Virgin, the Mother of God, not as if the nature of the Word or his divinity had its beginning from the holy Virgin, but because of her was born that holy body with a rational soul, to which the Word being personally united is said to be born according to the flesh. For a long time ago palai our most holy and blessed pope Coelestine, bishop of the Apostolic See, through his letters to that holy and most pious man Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, gave judgment concerning the present cause and affair wrisen which letters have been shown to your holy assembly. Labbe and Cossart, Concilia, Tom. Cyril, and Nestorius's Counter-anathematisms, with Notes.
But ignoring the anger of God for such behaviour, and unheeding the ecclesiastical canons, and forgetting that they were hastening to destruction by such a course of action, under the name of an excommunication, they then reviled the whole Synod. So that, if it be a bishop, he shall be removed from his bishopric and degraded; if it be a clergyman, he shall likewise be stricken from the clergy; and if it be a layman, he shall be anathematized, as has been afore said. Beiträge des internationalen Edessa-Symposiums in Halle an der Saale, 14. But how could he become the God or Lord of himself? His life had been put in danger and he now asked for judgment against the calumnies that had been brought against him. He is not asserting that the Council at large was making an official condemnation of the doctrine. We were formerly of opinion that these anathematisms were read at Ephesus, but not expressly confirmed, as there is hardly anything on the subject in the Acts. It was to be convened on the following Pentecost in the city of Ephesus in Asia Minor.
From this it is evident that the prevailing opinion, then as now, was that the Twelve Anathemas were defined as part of the faith by the Council of Ephesus. But you should realise that you have been misled either by some here who have been deposed by the holy synod for Manichaeism or by clergy of your own persuasion. Treatises and letters flowed forth from the ever-active pen of Cyril to the solitaries, monks, and clergy, to the Emperor, the imperial ladies, and finally to Nestorius himself, warning the faithful to be on their guard, and mildly entreating the Patriarch to abandon his error. For it is quite likely that some should spread it abroad that I have thought or said such things. Imperial and papal confirmation of the council The history of the intrigues by which both parties tried to get the emperor on their side need not be detailed here.
Furthermore it seemed good that the filthy book of this heresy, which has been published and is called by them Asceticon, should be anathematised, as being composed by heretics, a copy of which the most pious and religious Valerian brought with him. Rather did two different natures come together to form a unity, and from both arose one Christ, one Son. They demanded that the Emperor release Cyril and Memnon without delay, and furthermore that he recognize the decrees of the holy synod. Siricius, notary of the holy Catholic kaqolikhs Church of the city of Rome read it. For all by himself he drew up a paper which he called a deposition, and reviled and reproached the most holy and reverend Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, and the most reverend Memnon, bishop of Ephesus, our brother, and fellow-minister, none of us knowing anything about it, and not even those who were thus reviling knew what was being done, nor for what reason they had presumed to do this.
Therefore, since common diseases need more healing as they bring greater harm with them, if it has not been a continuous ancient custom for the bishop of Antioch to hold ordinations in Cyprusas it is asserted in memorials and orally by the religious men who have come before the synod the prelates of the holy churches of Cyprus shall, free from molestation and violence, use their right to perform by themselves the ordination of reverent bishops for their island, according to the canons of the holy fathers and the ancient custom. Eutyches interrupted with the complaint that he did not trust the legates. This sentence received 198 signatures, and some more were afterwards added. Something similar is true of his dying. The bishops shouted that he was worse than Ibas. How then can there be further doubt that the true Lamb died for us and on our account? If a metropolitan, having deserted his synod, adheres or shall adhere to Celestine, let him be cast out.
Spiritual weapons are those we must take, because the war is one of minds, and the weapons are words; so shall we be strong in the faith of our King. In 424, the Persian church declared itself independent of the Byzantine Empire and all other churches, in order to ward off allegations of foreign allegiance. John of Antioch, immediately after his arrival, while still dusty from the journey, and at the time when he was allowing the envoys of the synod to wait, held at his town residence a Conciliabulum with his adherents, at which, first of all Count Candidian related how Cyril and his friends, in spite of all warnings, and in opposition to the imperial decrees, had held a session five days before, had contested his the count's right to be present, had dismissed the bishops sent by Nestorius, and had paid no attention to the letters of 227 others. But we do not say that the Spirit is wise and powerful through some sharing with another, for he is all perfect and in need of no good thing. Ask them to tell you the facts, not just what they think will please yopu … You have the whole of the East against you, as well as Egypt. Clair, Millenarian Movements in Historical Context New York: Garland Publishing, 1992 , 85-87. In him has been preserved the difference of the natures of divinity and humanity, with all their properties, faculties and operations.
In a surprise move, Theodosius decided upon an extraordinary decision to ratify the decrees of both the Council of Ephesus as well as the alternative Council by John of Antioch and declared that Cyril, Memnon, and John were all deposed. To this day, several Churches that adopted the Council of Chalcedon refer to it the same, but several Orthodox Churches refute that. I suppose that the reason of this is that the Latins saw that they were not decrees affecting the Universal Church, but that the Canons set forth by the Ephesine fathers dealt merely with the peculiar and private matters of Nestorius and of his followers. For if it is necessary to believe that being God by nature he became flesh, that is man ensouled with a rational soul, whatever reason should anyone have for being ashamed at the expressions uttered by him should they happen to be suitable to him as man? But it was right that he, if he could truly prove the before-mentioned holy men to be heretics, both should come and prove the truth of that which, accepted as a true and indubitable crime, induced the temerarious sentence against them. But since some pretend to confess and accept it, while at the same time distorting the force of its expressions to their own opinion and so evading the truth, being sons of error and children of destruction, it has proved necessary to add testimonies from the holy and orthodox fathers that can fill out the meaning they have given to the words and their courage in proclaiming it. Kromminga, The Millennium in the Church: Studies in the History of Christian Chiliasm Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1945 , 102, 113. We, therefore, confess one Christ and Lord, not as worshipping.