There were, at any rate, arrangements for the receipt of zakat, paid voluntarily by Muslims as a religious duty, and Fiqh-i-Firuz Shahi mentions a separate treasury for zakat. Otherwise, it was a duty imposed on the Sultan which was taken indifferently. It lacked proper training, discipline and cohesion. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was an intellectual, with extensive knowledge of the Quran, , poetry and other fields. Each parganas was further divided into several villagers.
In evaluating the impact of Islam on the subcontinent, one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia in the pre-Islamic era. It was none other than the who headed the administrative System during the Delhi Sultanate; and in discharging his duties was supported by various nobles. Finance: The Sultan mainly collected five categories of taxes besides certain others. After Bahlul Lodi died, his son Nizam Khan assumed power, rechristened himself as and ruled from 1489 to 1517. The functioning and administration remained basically the same as it had existed during the pre-Turkish phase.
No Sultan of the Sultanate attempted to enforce justice based on secular principles even when the majority of the subjects belonged to a different faith. Historians note Ala ud-Din Khalji as being a. Muhmmad bin Tughlaq assumed this style during the early years of his reign and although Balban had retained the name of the caliph in the Khutba and Sikka, he made no mention of caliph anywhere. The only way to remove him was rebellion and civil war. Administration during the Delhi Sultanate was completely dependent on Muslim laws which were the laws of the Shariat or the laws of Islam. All contemporary historians who were mostly Muslims praised the bigoted religious policy of the Sultans.
For example, the Qutb complex in Delhi was built from stones of 27 demolished Hindu and Jain temples by some accounts. Besides, certain offices had become hereditary and weak Sultans failed to keep merit as the basis of recruitment and promotion of their officers. The Khaljis With their architecture, as revealed in Alai Darwaza built 1305 at the Qutub complex, and the Jamat Khana Masjid built 1325 at Nizamuddin, a marked change in style appears. He was a perfect autocrat with wide powers and unfettered authority. But, as the chief Sadr or the chief Qazi was mostly one person, he remained the chief adviser of the Sultan in judicial matters. When Alaud-din-Khilji conquered practically the whole of the country including the Deccan, he had allowed the big and small provinces to remain as they were. They were then copied, registered and dispatched.
The Quranic law was the supreme law of the empire. He took up the title of Zil-i-Ilahi Shadow of God. It was also the duty of Wazir to supervise the Mint, the intelligence department, the royal buildings and other bodies which were affiliated to the royal court. The Lodi dynasty belonged to the. It is true that the intermediaries were eliminated from-direct revenue collection. It is said that Muhammad Tughluq had employed about five hundred workers in gold brocade and four thousand weavers to manufacture cloth required by the court and for making robes of honour to be given in gift to the favoured ones. Most of them included the name of the caliph in the Khutba and the Sikka and adopted titles indicative of their subordination to the caliph.
He desired that there should be uniformity in land- revenue in his entire empire. Therefore, the efforts of the conquerors to establish the supremacy of their religion and convert the Hindus to Islam with a view to create a majority of people of their faith suited their circumstances, benefited their political motive and served their religion. The Mongols withdrew after plundering and stopped raiding northwest parts of the Delhi Sultanate. Fourthly, the Sultan maintained a great grandeur in his court. Most of the soldiers were Muslims and were united on the basis of Islam.
This also marked the end of Firuz Tughluq's power and the decline of the dynasty. The Sultan The title of the sultan signified a sovereign ruler and made the transition from the quasi theocratic Khalifa to a secular institution. The Sultans of Delhi maintained the fiction of the acceptance of the position of the Caliph. In the first book, the writer has drawn the administrative pattern set up at Ghazni, following the models of Baghdad and Bukhara. This army was maintained by the Ariz-i-Mumalik. Sikandar Lodi also tried to revive these practices.
They seem to have been produced for patrons, presumably independent but located somewhere in the Sultanate. Under Firuz Tughluq, wazirs became hereditary. During the normal period he remained merely a deputy Sultan much inferior to the Wazir. In fact there were no constitutional devices to remove a Sultan from the throne peacefully. The diwan—i—rasalat was an important officer as all the Sultans of Delhi were always eager to maintain diplomatic relations with the Central Asian powers and other powers of the country.
Habibullah, on the other hand, said that he was the minister for foreign affairs and was the in-charge of diplomatic correspondences and the ambassadors and envoys sent to and received from the foreign rulers. The pargana was an important administrative unit because it was there that the government came into direct contact with the peasants. There was a separate department for the training and maintenance of elephants. The Sultan In the administrative system of the the central figure was the Sultan. Thirdly he was the head of the executive, judiciary and military.
George Michell, London, 1978 that the generating source of these geometric designs is the circle, which could be developed into a square, a triangle or a polygon. The Hindus were already used to regard the king a representative of the divine power. He was the fountain head of all power. It was his duty to recruit troops and to maintain the descriptive rolls of men and horses. The barid-i mumalik was the head of the State news-agency. His power was based on two pillars—religion and military. A large number of tombs were built in and around Delhi so much so that over a period of time the area around Delhi looked like a sprawling qabristan graveyard.